For a long time people have been using all parts of pine - both wood, and needles, and bark, and cones - for various purposes. But its decorative qualities not so long ago attracted gardeners a little. The situation has changed a lot lately. With the advent of a wide variety of species and varieties of this plant, pines are increasingly becoming decoration of garden plots. About the most decorative pine trees, their use in landscape design, planting and growing features - this article.Spectacular pine trees in the area
Today, nurseries of ornamental plants have a rich assortment of various species and varieties of pines. Plants differ not only in the color of the needles, which can vary from emerald green to golden. The shape of the crown, the length of the needles and the height of the tree are also the hallmark of one kind or another.
Landscape designers, given and successfully selecting various varieties, sometimes create real masterpieces. Pine is undemanding to soils, tolerates severe frosts and drought, in addition, all types of this tree are real centenarians. Therefore, landscapes created once will please the eye for many years.
When creating landscape compositions with pines on the site, pay attention to the material: Flower garden with conifers - the rules of organization and choice of plants.
Not everyone can afford the services of a designer, but an ordinary amateur gardener may well create a harmonious coniferous composition. To avoid mistakes when creating a landscape, you need to know 10 simple rules for placing pines on the site:
- When planting, consider the height of the adult plant.
- The distance from the pine tree to the place from where it can be viewed should be 2 times the height of the tree itself.
- If there is not enough space on the site, you can create a composition of mid-height and dwarf pines.
- A pine tree looks beautiful when the rays of the rising or setting sun fall on it - if there is such an opportunity, then it is better to take this property into account.
- With a single location, the soil surface around the pine tree is best sown with a lawn - so the conifer looks most impressive.
- The pine tree planted near the pond looks good, especially in company with weeping forms of deciduous trees.
- Depending on the size of the plot, you can create compositions by combining pines of different shapes and heights - high views in the background, low and creeping in the foreground. Horizontal junipers or decorative deciduous plants — hosts, ferns, lily of the valley — look good as the lower tier.
- Pine trees planted at a young age, adapt well to the features of the site. This property can be used when planting in places with high groundwater levels. For a pine, an ordinary pit with drainage will be enough, and the root system itself will choose a good position for itself - in this case, superficial.
- When planting plants with different colors of needles, in order to maintain the style, they use the rule - if the composition consists of three plants - there should be no more than two flowers, if 5-7 conifers are planted, it is permissible to use three colors.
- To make the pine tree look beautiful both in winter and in summer, you need to choose frost-resistant plants that do not need winter shelter. After all, even the cutest covering material will disrupt the perception of a live ensemble.
Features of planting pine trees in the garden
Despite the fact that some species of pine trees are shade tolerant, it is advisable to choose a sufficiently lit area for planting them. The deficit of sunlight does not affect the general condition of the tree and its appearance in the best way - the shoots of such plants are stretched, and the needles turn pale.
It is best to choose a pine in a local nursery. A tree grown in local climatic conditions is more likely to take root in a new place. And another important detail - nurseries usually sell coniferous plants in pots, and transplanting such plants is completely painless.
The best time to plant pine trees is spring, from mid-April to early May, and early autumn - from mid-September to October. For planting, seedlings of 3-5 years old are well suited. As already mentioned, such plants better adapt to the characteristics of the site. On loose sandy soils in search of water, the roots of pines go deep into the ground, on heavy, flooded - they grow horizontally, not deep from the surface.
Pines are very sensitive to the cardinal points, therefore, digging a plant in the forest, you need to notice which side of the tree is looking, for example, to the south. When planting, it is necessary to orient the seedling in this way. For plants in containers, this condition is not suitable, since over a long time of growing it has been repeatedly turned in all directions. But pines with a closed root system and without this take root well.
Step-by-step pine planting process:
- For 2-3 weeks (the more, the better) before the proposed landing, you need to dig a hole. The size of the landing pit depends on the soil - on heavy, clay soils, a pit is dug larger than on sandy loam. The size of the seedling also matters - the roots should be freely located without bending along the walls.
- At the bottom of the pit, it is necessary to lay a drainage layer - expanded clay, chipped brick or crushed stone. From above it is desirable to pour a layer of coarse river sand or gravel.
- A wooden peg is installed in the center of the pit to tie a seedling (it is not necessary for mountain pines).
- The soil mixture is prepared from turfy soil and leaf, taken in equal quantities. If the soil on the site is heavy, sand is added to the mixture for better breathability, about 1/5 of the volume.
- The seedling is installed in the pit so that the root neck is not deepened, straighten the roots (in case the earthen ball has crumbled) and gently fill the pit with earth.
- Around the seedling form a near-stem circle and shed well the ground.
- A young pine is tied to a peg (for a garter, it is best to use a wide strip of fabric).
- The trunk circle is mulched with sawdust, coniferous litter or peat.
Further care consists in timely watering and top dressing. In hot weather, in the absence of rain, you need to spray young seedlings with plain water. This is best done in the evening, so that the needles do not receive a sunburn.
The first 2-3 years, young seedlings will need shelter for the winter. In the future, the need for this procedure disappears.Pines in containers can be planted in open ground at almost any time.
Pine crown formation
Pines can be formed in different ways, depending on the goal. Most often, pine is subjected to formation. Under natural conditions, this tree can reach very large sizes, but on a personal plot this is not always appropriate. By forming it is possible to significantly stop the growth of the plant, at the same time giving it a more fluffy appearance. The fact is that after pinching on young shoots, much more buds are laid, which next year will turn into shoots.
The formation of the crown is carried out by pinching - a secateurs are never used in this case, if only it is necessary to remove any branch as a whole. In the spring, when the young candles extend to their full length, but the needles have not yet moved away from the shoot (usually this happens in May), you need to pinch the shoot with your hands to the required size - 1/3, 1/2 or 2/3. Make it a twisting motion.
After 2-3 weeks, the pines are inspected again for further adjustment. If some shoots have stretched out during this time and disturbed the overall picture, they are pinched or, if necessary, completely removed. It is better to carry out this procedure with gloves, since the emitted resin is poorly washed.
With the help of the formation, it is possible not only to adjust the crown - to trim some bumpy or bare sections, but also to give the pine a completely exotic look. Gardeners with creative inclinations, using different methods of formation, turn their tree into a ball on a stem or a real Japanese bonsai.
Young shoots are quite elastic and they can not only pinch, but also bend in the right direction. By securing the branches in an unnatural position, you can give the pine a mysterious, fabulous look. True, this will take years, as well as the creation of any hardwood bonsai. Therefore, such an activity is suitable only for the patient gardener. For those who want to do it quickly and beautifully, there are just different types and varieties of pines, which rarely need formation.
The most decorative among unpretentious pines
There are approximately 130 species of pines in nature, but landscape designers advise using the most unpretentious, hardy and, of course, decorative pines for landscaping. Description of the most popular of them is below.Cedar pine, or Siberian cedar (Pinus sibirica)
Cedar pine, or Siberian cedar
Slowly growing coniferous tree, in adulthood, reaches 40 meters in height and about two meters in diameter. It grows so slowly that by the age of 20 its height reaches only 2.5 meters. Numerous branches form a dense crown, giving the tree a simply chic look.
But not only beauty and grandeur distinguish Siberian cedar from other conifers. The air filled with coniferous aroma is so clean that experts call it sterile. The main advantage of this pine is cedar cones with seeds in the form of tasty and very healthy nuts.
The Siberian cedar has many advantages and advantages - it is winter-hardy and durable, photophilous and shade-tolerant at the same time, copes well with heat and drought, and is resistant to diseases and pests. Cedar pine prefers fertile light loams; on heavy soils, good drainage is required.
In landscape design, Siberian cedar is used both in group plantings and as a single tree. Thanks to the thick dark green needles, this pine tree serves as a wonderful background plant. Against its background, other species of conifers or deciduous decorative trees and shrubs of light, yellow-green tones look good.
Do not confuse Siberian cedar with real cedars. There are only three types of them in nature - Atlas, Lebanese and Himalayan. In the middle lane, none of them will grow, unlike Siberian cedar, that is, cedar pine.
Black Pine, or Black Autrian Pine
Evergreen coniferous tree, it grows much slower than ordinary pine.
The maximum annual growth is about 20 cm. By the age of 30, black pine usually reaches 6 m in height and 3 m - the diameter of the crown. The most interesting, in terms of landscape design, black pine "Pyramidilis" (Pinus nigra Pyramidalis).
The shape of this pine is narrow pyramidal, and it determined its name. Shoots covered with beautiful dark needles with long needles up to 9 cm are directed upwards. Small decorative cones add special decorativeness to the tree. Light, almost yellow, they contrast beautifully with the dark green needles.
Black pine is a hardy and not capricious plant. It grows, practically, on all types of soils, except salty soils, it is put up with a lack of light, and with gas pollution. It tolerates heat and drought, practically does not get sick and is not affected by pests. In the early years, young pines will need shelter for the winter to protect plants from spring burns.
How to properly prepare conifers for winter, read the material: 7 conditions for successful wintering of conifers.
In landscape design, the Pyramidals are used as a vertical, successfully combining dark greens and a strict form with other shades and various forms of conifers and ornamental deciduous plants.Black pine "Pyramidilis" (Pinus nigra Pyramidalis).
European pine or Mountain pine
To date, at least 120 varieties of mountain pine have been registered. Some of them are so similar that not all professionals can distinguish them. Next - the most popular varieties of mountain pine among landscape designers for the middle strip.
Mountain pine "Pumilio"
This is a dwarf pine with a shrub shape. Thick bright green shoots form an open crown. The size of an adult plant is small - the height rarely exceeds 1.5 m, the width is no more than 3 m. The “Pumilio” grows slowly and in a year it adds only 5 cm in height and 12 cm in width.
The Pumilio mountain pine is decorated with shoots of different lengths, all pointing upward like candles, making the plant look like a green candelabra. The needles are thick, short, beautiful bright green. At the age of 6-8, “Pumilio” begins bearing fruit and small light bumps appear on the tops of the shoots.
This mountain pine tree prefers a sunny location on light soils. It is undemanding to acidity, and grows equally well on alkaline and acidic soils. He does not like spring flooding and stagnation of water, which often happens on heavy soils. Therefore, when landing on such soil, a good layer of drainage is required, and it is advisable to add sand, peat or vermiculite to the soil for a better water permeability.
The rest of the plant is quite unpretentious - it withstands heat and increased humidity and gas contamination. Mountain pine copes well even with harsh winters - it withstands frosts, wind, and snowfalls - its plastic branches do not break under the weight of snow. But the sun in the winter-spring period often burns young needles, so in the early years the plant needs to be covered.
Due to its interesting open form, the mountain pine "Pumilio" is widely used in landscape design. Depending on the composition, it can be both the main plant and the lower tier. Slow growth makes it indispensable for creating rocky gardens and rockeries.
Mountain pine "Mugus"
Mugus is another species of mountain pine. This is a slowly growing conifer in a compact form. An adult plant usually does not exceed 2 m in length and width. Annual growth is about 10 cm in height. Creeping shoots are covered with dark green needles with needles 4 cm long. Otherwise, the conditions for cultivation and use in landscaping are the same as in the mountain pine "Pumilio".Mountain pine "Pumilio" (Pinus mugo Pumilio). Mountain pine "Mugus" (Pinus mugo Mughus). Weimutov Pine (Pinus strobus) "Radiata".
A very interesting sort of Weimutov pine - Radiata - miniature conifer in an original form. The height of an adult plant does not exceed 3.5 m and it grows to such sizes 25 years. For a year, the Weimutov pine “Radiata” adds 10 cm in height and in width. Green needles with a bluish tint consist of numerous needles 10 cm long, due to which the plant has the shape of a neat ball.
Despite the outer sophistication, Radiata is unpretentious and, like many other types of pines, stoically endures all the hardships of our winters, gas pollution, summer heat and winds.
The original form of "Radiata", its ability to change shape with proper formation make this plant indispensable in the design of the coniferous garden. In the company of other conifers or deciduous ornamental trees and shrubs, in the contrast of flowers and shapes, compact species of pines will create a spectacular unforgettable landscape.
They grow slowly, so care for such a garden does not require much time and effort, and this is very important, especially for the always hurrying and busy citizens.
Even more species and varieties of decorative pines in the material "Pine - types and varieties.Cultivation. "
Dear readers! To create a fabulous corner from different types of pines is possible not only for an experienced designer, but also for an ordinary summer resident. Caring for conifers is simple, and knowing the peculiarities of crown formation, ordinary pine trees can also be turned into strange trees, if it is not possible to acquire interesting varieties.